Public Health Engineering

Last Updated on: September 16, 2022


Public Health Engineering Department was created in 1956. The department is entrusted with the responsibility of providing safe drinking water and sanitation facilities in rural areas of Assam.

PHED carries out aforementioned activities in rural areas of Assam thorough -

Two centrally sponsored flagship programmes namely

(i) NRDWP (National Rural Drinking Water Programme) /JAL JEEVAN MISSION (JJM)

(ii) Swachh Bharat Mission (G)

Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

Swachh Bharat Mission is a massive mass movement that seeks to create a Clean India by 2019. The father of our nation Mr. Mahatma Gandhi always puts the emphasis on Swachhata as Swachhata leads to healthy and prosperous life. Keeping this in mind, the Indian government has decided to launch the Swachh bharat mission on October 2, 2014.The mission will cover all rural and urban areas. The urban component of the mission will be implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development, and the rural component by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

Phase I

The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The SBM (G) was launched on 2nd October 2014 to ensure cleanliness in India and make it Open Defecation Free (ODF) in Five Years. It seeks to improve the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayat Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.

Incentive as provided under the Mission for the construction of Individual Household Latrines (IHHL) was available for all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line (APL) households restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homestead, physically handicapped and women headed households. The Incentive amount provided under SBM (G) to Below Poverty Line (BPL) /identified APLs households was up to Rs.12,000 for construction of one unit of IHHL and provide for water availability, including for storing for hand-washing and cleaning of the toilet. Central Share of this Incentive for IHHLs was Rs.9,000/- (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share was Rs.3,000/-(25%). For North Eastern State, and Special category States, the Central share was Rs. 10,800/- and the State share Rs.1,200/- (90% : 10%). The beneficiary was encouraged to additionally contribute in the construction of his/her IHHL to promote ownership.

Said to be the world’s largest behavior change programme, it achieved the seemingly impossible task by generating a people’s movement at the grassroots. All stakeholders worked together from 2014 to 2019 and in a time bound manner ensured that, as on 2nd October 2019 all districts across India, declared themselves as ODF.

Phase II

Having achieved the milestone of an ODF India in a time bound manner in the last five years from 2014 to 2019, the work on sanitation and the behavior change campaign has to continue to sustain the gains made under the programme and also to ensure no one is left behind and the overall cleanliness (Sampoorn Swachhata) in villages as well.

In February 2020, the Phase-II of the SBM (G) with a total outlay of Rs. 1,40,881 crores was approved with a focus on the sustainability of ODF status and Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM). SBM (G) Phase-II is planned to be a novel model of convergence between different verticals of financing and various schemes of Central and State Governments. The programme will be implemented in mission mode from 2020-21 to 2024-25.


The aim of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) phase II is to ensure the open defecation free behaviors are sustained

•    Open defecation free behaviours are sustained and no one is left behind.
•   Solid and liquid waste management facilities are accessible and reinforcing ODF behaviours and focus on providing interventions for safe management of solid and liquid waste in villages
•   To encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
•  To develop, wherever required, community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
•  To create significant positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion by improving sanitation especially in marginalized communities

Open Defecation Free (ODF) is the termination of faecal-oral transmission, defined by:

•    No visible faeces found in the environment/village; and
•    Every household as well as public/community institutions using safe technology option for disposal of faeces.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) has focused on achievement of open defecation free (ODF) villages.

Many villages across India are now declaring themselves as Open Defecation Free. The States are also verifying the same as per their respective mechanisms. The achievement of ODF involves to a great extent work of behaviour change, sustenance of which requires concerted efforts by the community. In the past, there have been slippages from Nirmal status in the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) awarded villages. Therefore, it is important to draw lessons regarding those slippages and work out activities that minimize that risk.

A key factor is close engagement with such villages for a period of time after it becomes Open Defecation Free. Many Districts ans States have evolved certain parameters to maintain sustainability of ODF. Based on such good practices, guidelines for ODF sustainability are being framed to guide the States and Districts in sustaining the ODF status. These guidelines are only inductive and the States are free to adopt other measures, as deemed suitable to them, to sustain ODF.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) Sonitpur







Base Line Survey (BLS-12)































Jal Jeevan Mission

The Central Government assistance to States for rural water supply began in 1972 with the launch of Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme. It was renamed as National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) in 2009, which is a centrally sponsored scheme with fund sharing between the Centre and the States. Under NRDWP, one of the objectives was to “enable all households to have access to and use safe & adequate drinking water within premises to the extent possible”. It was proposed to achieve the goal by 2030, coinciding with the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. But now, it is has been planned to achieve the goal by 2024 through Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM).

As per the information available with DDWS, as on 31.3.2019, only 18.33% of rural households i.e., 3.27 Crore out of the total 17.87 Crore rural households in the country, have piped water connection.

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

Government of India has restructured and subsumed the ongoing National Rural Drinking Water Programme(NRDWP) into Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) to provide Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) to every rural household i.e., Har Ghar Nal Se Jal (HGNSJ) by 2024.

The following kinds of works/ schemes are proposed to be taken up under JJM:

i.) In-village water supply (PWS) infrastructure for tap water connection to every household;

ii.) Reliable drinking water source development/ augmentation of existing sources;

iii.) Transfer of water (multi-village scheme; where quantity & quality issues are there in the local water sources);

iv.) Technological intervention for treatment to make water potable (where water quality is an issue, but quantity is sufficient);

v.) Retrofitting of completed and ongoing piped water supply schemes to provide FHTC and raise the service level;

vi.) Grey water management;

vii.) Capacity  building  of  various  stakeholders  and  support  activities  to  facilitate  the implementation.

Service level delivery under JJM:

The goal of JJM is to provide functional household tap connection to every household with service level at the rate of 55 litres per capita per day (lpcd).

The institutional mechanism under JJM:


National level

National Jal Jeevan Mission






State level


State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM)





District level

District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM)








Paani Samiti/ Village Water & Sanitation Committee




(VWSC)/ User group





Financial Implication and Funding Pattern under JJM: Total estimated cost of JJM is Rs. 3.60 Lakh Crore. The fund sharing pattern between Centre and State is 90:10 for Himalayan (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) and North-Eastern States, 100:0 for UTs and 50:50 for rest of the States.

Fund allocation criteria under JJM:

The notional allocation of fund among state has been modified by including the number of left-out household connections as additional criteria with 20% weightage and 10% weightage is given to rural population affected by water quality, thus allowing more fund for quality affected states. The states can utilise the funds under JJM for taking up schemes in quality affected areas on priority.


As per NRDWP

As per JJM




Rural Population (as per last Census)






Rural SC and ST population (as per last Census)






States under DDP, DPAP, HADP and special category Hill



States in terms of rural areas






Population (as per IMIS) residing in habitations affected by



chemical contaminants including heavy metals (as on 31st



March of preceding financial year)






Weightage for balance individual household connections



to be provided






JJM would ensure functional household tap connection to every rural household as there is a demand that exists and people aspire for household piped water supply. It will significantly improve quality of life, particularly of women and children and assist in ODF-sustainability as water is important to sustain Swachh Bharat Mission’s gains. In the rural areas, for developing in-village water supply infrastructure, water resource management, source strengthening/ augmentation, distribution network, treatment plants, etc., unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled human resource will be required. Further there will be procurement of various materials for water supply systems. This will generate employment and boost the economy.

In order to instill the ‘sense of ownership’ among the community/ user groups for better implementation and long-term operation & maintenance of the scheme as well as bringing in transparency, GP/ VWSC/ Paani Samiti will implement the in-village piped water supply infrastructure and related source development. Communities will contribute towards 10% of the capital cost in cash and/or kind and/or labour in all villages except for hilly and forested areas/ NE and Himalayan States and villages having more than 50% SC and/or ST population, where community contribution would be 5% of the capital cost.

To assist the village community for in-village water resource management and water supply related infrastructure, NGOs, Voluntary Organizations/ women SHGs under NRLM/ SRLM, etc. will be associated as partners to facilitate the communities in awareness creation, capacity building, planning & implementing the schemes. They would also mobilise the local communities, firm up their aspirations and handhold them for resource mapping as participatory approach and decentralized planning will hold the key for long term sustainability and operation and maintenance of the system.

JJM will focus on integrated demand and supply side management of water at the local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse would be undertaken in convergence with other Government programmes/ schemes.

For targeted delivery and monitoring of specific outcomes, every functional tap connection is to be linked with the Aadhar number of the head of the household subject to statutory provisions. Every asset created under JJM will be geo-tagged. States will carry out inspections by empanelled third party agencies for all infrastructures created under the JJM. GoI will carry out functionality assessment of schemes, based on which fund will be made available to States/ UTs based on their performance.

There are people who would like to contribute and donate voluntarily for water supply in the rural areas. To facilitate this, ‘Rashtriya Jal Jeevan Kosh’ will mobilize and accept donations/ contributions received from various sources to fund JJM.




House Hold Connection as on 01/04/2020


Achievement till Sept, 2020



Tezpur Division No.I, Tezpur






Dhekiajuli Division No.II, Dhekiajuli